A few nice prototype machine shop pictures I located:
Oh the joys of the open road!
Image by brizzle born and bred
History of Motor Car / Automobile Inventions and Improvements
To us, these inventions and contributions are no longer essential. We take numerous of them for granted.
In 1971, the Ford car company constructed an experimental airbag fleet. Basic Motors tested airbags on the 1973 model Chevrolet automobile that have been only sold for government use. The 1973, Oldsmobile Toronado was the very first car with a passenger air bag intended for sale to the public. Common Motors later presented an option to the basic public of driver side airbags in complete-sized Oldsmobile’s and Buick’s in 1975 and 1976 respectively. Cadillacs have been accessible with driver and passenger airbags choices during these very same years. Early airbags program had design and style concerns resulting in fatalities caused solely by the airbags.
Airbags were presented as soon as once again as an selection on the 1984 Ford Tempo automobile. By 1988, Chrysler became the first business to offer air bag restraint systems as common equipment. In 1994, TRW began production of the 1st gas-inflated airbag. They are now mandatory in all vehicles considering that 1998.
The drum brake was invented in Germany by Wilhelm Maybach in 1901.
In 1902 Louis Renault (French) invented the version on which the contemporary drum brake is based.
Self adjusting drum brakes have been invented in the 1950s.
Malcolm Loughead patented a hydraulic braking technique in the USA which was very first utilized on the 1920 Duesenberg automobile.
In 1949 Crosley Motors became the initial American auto manufacturer to match disc brakes. In the identical year Chrysler fitted a kind of disc brake to their fourth generation Imperial models.
Disc brakes were developed by Dunlop in Excellent Britain in the early 1950s and fitted to a Jaguar C-Type racing car in 1953.
In 1954 an Austin Healey 100S became the very first production auto to be fitted with disc brakes on all 4 wheels.
Disc brakes started to replace drum brakes in the 1960s.
The first automobile radio was invented by Paul Gavin (American) in 1929.
The product was known as “Motorola” (a moving radio).
The first cruise controls fitted to cars have been based on the centrifugal governor, a technique invented in 1788 by James Watt and Matthew Boulton (British) for use on locomotives.
They have been 1st fitted to vehicles sometime amongst 1900 and 1910.
In 1945 Ralph Teetor (American) invented the modern day cruise manage.
In 1958 a Chrysler Imperial became the very first automobile to be fitted with his cruise control system.
Which automobile model had the 1st doors and an enclosed compartment and in what year? Was an enclosed compartment 1st fitted to shield only the passengers but not the driver? – information wanted.
In 1955 a mechanical fuel injection method was developed by Bosch in Germany. Two years later, in 1957, General Motors in the United States created a mechanical fuel injection program.
The “Electrojector” developed by Bendix in the United States for the duration of the mid 1950s was one of the 1st electronic fuel injection systems. From 1957 it was supplied as an option by Pontiac, De Soto, Chrysler, Dodge and Plymouth.
Even so, it was not trustworthy and was only fitted to about 35 cars.
Note: The Bendix fuel injection system was originally used on aircraft throughout the Korean War (1950-53).
Bosch later obtained patent rights to Bendix’s Electrojector technique and during the 1960s Bosch created their own “D-Jetronic” electronic fuel injection system.
This was very first fitted to the VW Variety lll in 1968. Between 1970 and 1973 the system was also utilized by Volvo, Saab, Renault, Porsche and Mercedes-Benz.
The D-Jetronic version was final used in 1976. Bosch introduced enhanced versions, such as the L and K-Jetronic systems.
By 1922 most vehicles have been fitted with petrol gauges.
Speedometers became compulsory in the UK in 1937.
A speedometer is a device that measures the instantaneous speed of a land car.
Now universally fitted to motor cars, they started to be accessible as choices in the 1900s, and as normal gear from about 1910 onwards.
Speedometers for other automobiles have specific names and use other means of sensing speed. For a boat, this is a pit log. For an aircraft, this is an airspeed indicator.
The speedometer was invented by the Croatian Josip Belušić in 1888, and was initially known as a velocimeter.
Rev-Counter – The initial mechanical tachometers have been primarily based on measuring the centrifugal force, comparable to the operation of a centrifugal governor. The inventor is assumed to be the German engineer Dietrich Uhlhorn he used it for measuring the speed of machines in 1817. Given that 1840, it has been utilized to measure the speed of locomotives.
The disruptive discharge Tesla coil is an early predecessor of the "ignition coil" in the ignition program as was invented in 1891. Tesla also gained U.S. Patent 609,250, "Electrical Igniter for Gas Engines", on August 16, 1898. The principles of the contemporary ignition coil employed today is based on this design and style. A. Atwater Kent, in 1921, patented the contemporary type of the ignition coil.
A distributor is a device in the ignition technique of an internal combustion engine that routes higher voltage from the ignition coil to the spark plugs in the right firing order. The very first reputable battery operated ignition was developed by Dayton Engineering Laboratories Co. (Delco) and introduced in the 1910 Cadillac. This ignition was developed by Charles Kettering and was regarded a wonder in its day.
Magneto ignition was introduced on the 1899 Daimler Phönix. This was followed by Benz, Mors, Turcat-Mery, and Nesseldorf, and quickly was used on most vehicles up until about 1918 in each low voltage (voltage for secondary coils to fire the spark plugs) and high voltage magnetos (to fire the spark plug directly, equivalent to coil ignitions, introduced by Bosch in 1903)
Reversing lights were 1st installed in American automobiles in 1921.
In 1920 DuPont in the USA made a thick pyroxylin lacquer that was quick drying, durable and could be coloured. It was originally called Viscolac®.
In cooperation with General Motors DuPont refined the item additional and renamed it Duco.
Duco was 1st used by Basic Motors as a tough, rapid-drying finish on its 1923 Oakland models.
It reduced paint finish time from two weeks to two days and soon became the regular finish on automobiles.
It remained in use till the late 1960s.
Sometime between 1920 and 1926 Francis Davis and George Jessup (Americans) invented a hydraulic energy steering method.
In 1926 it was tested in a Pierce-Arrow vehicle.
The Chrysler Imperial became the first production vehicle to be fitted with a power steering technique in 1951. The method was referred to as “Hydraguide”.
The radiator was invented and patented by Karl Benz for use on his very first horseless carriage in 1885. It overcame the dilemma of evaporation cooling, which was boiling away a gallon of water for every single hour he operated his single cylinder engine.
The 1st honeycomb radiator was designed by Wilhelm Maybach and fitted to the 1901 Mercedes 35 hp model.
Anti freeze became obtainable in the USA in 1905.
The Union Carbide & Carbon Corporation in the USA was the sole producer of ethylene glycol up to 1914. Initially it was employed as an anti freeze.
The use of ethylene glycol as an engine coolant was first proposed in England in 1916.
A patent was granted in the USA in 1918 for the use of ethylene glycol to reduce the freezing point of water in auto cooling systems.
Volvo cars have long been marketed and stressed their historic reputation for solidity and reliability. Prior to strong government safety regulation Volvo had been in the forefront of security engineering.
In 1944, laminated glass was introduced in the PV model. In 1958, Volvo engineer Nils Bohlin invented and patented the modern day three-Point Safety Belt, which became normal on all Volvo cars
in 1959. Volvo was the 1st firm to generate cars with padded dashboards beginning in late 1956 with their Amazon model.[citation required] Moreover, Volvo created the 1st rear-facing kid seat in 1964 and introduced its personal booster seat in 1978.
In 1986, Volvo introduced the 1st central higher-mounted stoplight[ (a brake light not shared with the rear tail lights), which became federally mandated in the United States in the 1986 model year. Seat belt and youngster seat innovation continued as shown in the 1991 960.
The 960 introduced the first three-point seat belt for the middle of the rear seat and a kid security cushion integrated in the middle armrest. Also in 1991 came the introduction of the Side Influence Protection Method (SIPS) on the 940/960 and 850 models, which channeled the force of a side impact away from the doors and into the security cage.
To add to its SIPS, in 1995 Volvo was the very first to introduce side airbags and installed them as normal gear in all models in 1996. At the begin of the 1995 model year, side influence protection airbags were regular on higher trim-level Volvo 850s, and optional on other 850s. By the middle of the production year, they were common on all 850s. In Model Year 1996, SIPS airbags became common on all Volvo models.
In 1998 Volvo also developed and was the very first to install a head-defending airbag, which was produced standard in all new models as effectively as some existing models. The head-safeguarding airbag was not available on the 1996 C70 due to the initial design and style deploying the airbag from the roof the C70, being a convertible, could not accommodate such an airbag.
Later years of the C70 featured a head-guarding airbag deploying upwards from the door, negating the concern of roof position. It has been stated by many testing authorities that side head defending curtain airbags can reduce danger of death in a side influence by up to 40% and brain injury by up to 55%, as nicely as guarding in a rollover circumstance.
In 1998, Volvo introduced its Whiplash Protection Program (WHIPS), a safety device to avoid injury of front seat customers in the course of collisions. In 2004, Volvo introduced the BLIS program, which detects automobiles entering the Volvo’s blind spot with a side view mirror mounted sensor and alerts the driver with a light.
That year also saw Volvos sold in all markets equipped with side-marker lights and daytime-running lights. Considerably of Volvo’s security technologies now also goes into other Ford cars. In 2005 Volvo presented the second generation of Volvo C70, it comes with additional stiff door-mounted inflatable side curtains (the very first of its kind in a convertible).
In 2006 Volvo’s Personal Automobile Communicator (PCC) remote manage has been launched as an optional feature with the all new Volvo S80. Just before a driver gets to their vehicle, they are capable to assessment the security level and know whether they have set the alarm and if the vehicle is locked.
Additionally, a heartbeat sensor warns if an individual is hiding inside the car.
The all new Volvo S80 is also the very first Volvo model to function Adaptive cruise manage (ACC) with Collision Warning and Brake Support (CWBS).
Because 2004 all Volvo models except for the C70 and C30 are offered with an all-wheel drive method created by Haldex Traction of Sweden.
Even though Volvo Car Corp is owned by the Ford Motor Company, the safety systems of Volvo are nevertheless produced normal on all of their autos. Volvo has patented all of their safety innovations, like SIPS, WHIPS, ROPS, DSTC, IC, and physique structures. Some of these systems have shown up in other Ford cars in connected forms to that of Volvo systems only due to the fact Volvo has licenced the FOMOCO and other PAG members to use these characteristics.
A 2005 FOLKSAM report puts the 740/940 (from 1982 on) in the 15% far better than average category, the second from the prime category. The Volvo 745 was also recalled due to that the front seatbelts mounts could break in a collision.
In 2005, when the American non-profit, non-governmental Insurance Institute for Highway Security (IIHS) released its very first annual Best Safety Picks autos list, none of Volvo’s offered automobiles in the U.S. had been integrated on the list. According to Russ Rader, a spokesman for IIHS, Volvo was lagging behind its competitors. Dan Johnston, a Volvo spokesman, denied that the company’s vehicles are any less secure than the Institute’s best-rated automobiles, adding that
"It’s just a philosophy on security that is diverse from building vehicles to pass these kinds of tests."
According to IIHS, Volvo’s S80 became one of 2009 Prime Safety Picks Award winner, but Volvo’s S40 and S60 (each 2005–09 models with normal side airbags) failed to attain the highest rating in their side impact test. Volvo’s C30 is not tested by IIHS however, but received 5 star security in EuroNCAP.
Even so, according to the IIHS, in recent years Volvo Cars have nonetheless managed to maintain their higher class security ratings as seen in test benefits The Volvo XC90, S80 and C70 all score best scores in these rated crash tests.
In 2008 a French court located Volvo partially responsible for causing the death of two youngsters and serious injuries of a single in Wasselonne on June 17, 1999, when the brakes of a 1996 Volvo 850 failed. The court subjected Volvo to a 200,000 Euro fine.
The Amazon was noted for its safety characteristics, with a padded dashboard, front and rear seat belts and a laminated windshield.
1944 Safety cage
1944 Laminated windscreen
1954 Defroster vents for windscreen
1956 Windscreen washers
1957 Anchor points for 2–point safety belts front
1958 Anchor points for 2–point safety belts rear
1959 3–point front safety belts common
1960 Padded instrument panel
1964 Very first rearward–facing child security seat prototype tested
1966 Crumple zones front and rear
1966 Security door–locks
1967 Safety belt rear seats
1969 Inertia reel safety belts
1971 Reminder security belt
1972 3–point safety belts – rear
1972 Rearward–facing youngster safety seat
1972 Childproof locks on rear doors
1974 Multistage influence absorbing steering column
1974 Bulb integrity sensor
1975 Braking technique with stepped bore master cylinder
1978 Child safety booster cushion
1982 "Anti–submarining" protection
1986 Three–point security belt centre rear seat
1990 Integrated youngster safety cushion in centre rear seat
1991 SIPS – Side Effect Protection Program
1991 Automatic height adjusting security belt
1992 Reinforced rear seats in estate models
1995 Integrated child safety cushion outer rear seats
1997 ROPS – Roll Over Protection Technique (C70)
1998 WHIPS – Whiplash Protection Technique
1998 IC – Inflatable Curtain
2001 SCC – Volvo Safety Concept Automobile
2002 RSC – Roll Stability Manage
2003 New Front Structure called Volvo Intelligent Car Architecture (VIVA, S40, V50)
2003 Rear seat belt reminders (in S40 and V50)
2003 IDIS – Intelligent Driver Info System (in S40 and V50)
2003 Inauguration of Volvo’s Targeted traffic Accident Investigation Team in Bangkok
2004 BLIS – Blind Spot Data Method (in S40 and V50)
2005 Introduction of DMIC (Door Mounted Inflatable Curtain, new Volvo C70)
2006 PCC – Personal Automobile Communicator (S80)
2006 CWBS – Collision Warning with Brake Assistance (S80)
2007 PPB – Energy Park Brake (S80)
2007 DAC – Driver Alert Manage (V70, XC70)
2009 City Safety – Automatically quit car at speeds below 19 mph (31 km/h) if obstruction is detected in front of car (XC60)
2010 Pedestrian Detection with auto brake (New S60)
The first automobiles have been steered with a tiller.
The very first car fitted with a steering wheel was a French Panhard & Levassor model in 1898.
The very first American vehicle to be fitted with a steering wheel was the second automobile built by Packard in 1899.
Left hand steering wheels had been 1st fitted to American automobiles in about 1908.
These days, most factory sliding sunroof options function a glass panel and are often marketed as moonroofs, a term introduced in 1973 by John Atkinson, a advertising manager at Ford for the Lincoln Continental Mark IV. For the very first year, Ford sent out its Mark IVs to American Sunroof Company for offline installation.
Independent front suspension was very first fitted to a Lancia auto in 1922.
In 1928 Cadillac/GM introduced a completely-synchronized manual transmission method referred to as Syncro-Mesh.
In 1932 Cadillac/GM started working on a shiftless transmission method. By 1934 they had created a step-ratio gearbox that would shift automatically beneath complete torque.
By 1937 they had produced a semi-automatic transmission method known as Automatic Security Transmission (AST). It was fitted to Oldsmobile models from 1937 to 1939.
In 1939 GM introduced an automatic transmission program called Hydra-Matic Drive. It was 1st installed in a 1940 Oldsmobile model.
Some cars from the 1920s to 1950s utilised retractable semaphores referred to as trafficators rather than flashing lights. They were frequently mounted high up behind the front doors and swung out horizontally. Nevertheless, they were fragile and could be very easily broken off and also had a tendency to stick in the closed position.
Florence Lawrence (Canadian) invented a turn indicator for vehicles in about 1914.
The device was named an “auto signalling arm” and it was attached to the car’s rear fender. When the driver pressed a button an electrically operated arm raised a sign to indicate the direction of the turn.
Florence Lawrence did not, even so, properly patent her invention.
In 1929 Oscar J. Simler (American) invented and patented a turn indicator.
In 1935 a company in the United States invented a flashing turn indicator.
A Buick was the initial production auto to be fitted with an electrical turn indicator in 1938.
Till the early 1960s, most front turn signals worldwide emitted white light and most rear turn signals emitted red. Amber front turn signals were voluntarily adopted by the auto business in the USA for most automobiles starting in the 1963 model year, though front turn signals have been still permitted to emit white light until FMVSS 108 took effect for the 1968 model year, whereupon amber became the only permissible colour for front turn signals.
Presently, nearly all countries outside North America need that all front, side and rear turn signals make amber light. In North America the rear signals may possibly be amber or red. International proponents of amber rear signals say they are far more easily discernible as turn signals. U.S. studies in the early 1990s demonstrated improvements in the speed and accuracy of following drivers’ reaction to cease lamps when the turn signals had been amber rather than red.
American regulators and other proponents of red rear turn signals have historically asserted there is no verified advantage to amber signals. However, a 2008 U.S. study by NHTSA (the National Highway Targeted traffic Safety Administration) suggests vehicles with amber rear signals rather than red ones are up to 28% less likely to be involved in certain sorts of collisions, and a 2009 NHTSA study determined there is a significant general safety benefit to amber rather than red rear turn signals.
There is some proof that turn signals with colourless clear lenses and amber bulbs may possibly be less conspicuous in bright sunlight than those with amber lenses and colourless bulbs.
The initial shatterproof security glass was invented in France in 1909 by Triplex.
Window winders had been introduced in about 1925.
Energy operated auto windows had been fitted in the USA in 1946.
Gladstone Adams was granted a patient for windscreen wipers in Wonderful Britain in 1911.
William Folberth was granted a patient in 1922 for the very first automatic (vacuum powered) windshield wiper mechanism.
Electric windscreen wipers had been introduced in 1922.
A Studebaker car was fitted with windscreen washers in 1937.
In 1940 Chrysler offered models with two-speed wipers.
Note: Headlight wipers have been first introduced by Saab in 1970.
Automobile Accessories Timeline
The 1903 Tincher introduced the motoring public to air-increase (energy) brakes. It was not an selection either, but regular equipment. But then, the Tincher sold for 00 — about ten instances the price tag of the average car of the day.
The 1st adjustable driver’s seat was offered in the 1914 Maxwell. The 1921 Hudson had sliding bench seats as common equipment. Buick, in 1946, gave motorists the very first optional two-way power seat, and the 1953 Lincoln had the very first optional four-way energy seat.
In 1921, an innovator by the name of Wills Sainte Claire mounted a bulb on the rear of his car and wired it to a switch on the car’s transmission, so it glowed when the car was shifted into reverse. Thus, the backup light was invented and sold as an accessory till federal law made it mandatory in the 1960s.
The 1923 Springfield sedan is credited with getting the very first car to supply a radio as an option. Radios did not turn out to be well-known until the early ’30s, when they lastly lost their reputation as a driver distraction.
The 1928 Studebaker gave us the 1st windshield defroster the 1937 Studebaker, the windshield washer.
The 1939 Packard ushered in air conditioning.
The initial automobile with an actual refrigeration program was the 1940 model year Packard.
Bendix Drive or Starter Drive
In 1910, Vincent Bendix patented the Bendix drive for electric starters, an improvement to the hand cranked starters of the time.
In 1901, British inventor Frederick William Lanchester patented disc brakes.
In 1929, American Paul Galvin, the head of Galvin Manufacturing Corporation, invented the very first auto radio. The 1st automobile radios were not available from carmakers. Customers had to buy the radios separately. Galvin coined the name "Motorola" for the company’s new goods combining the concept of motion and radio.
The initial crash test dummy was the Sierra Sam designed in 1949.
Ralph Teetor, a prolific (and blind) inventor, invented cruise manage.
In 1898, Louis Renault invented the first driveshaft.
Daimler introduced electric windows in cars in 1948.
In 1901, Frederick Simms invented the 1st automobile fender (Bumper). Equivalent to the railway engine buffers of the period.
The very first electronic fuel injection system for automobiles was invented in 1966 in Britain.
The several processes and agents required to improve the quality of gasoline (Petrol) making it a much better commodity.
Canadian Thomas Ahearn invented the 1st electric automobile heater in 1890.
Charles Kettering was the inventor of the very first electrical starter motor ignition method.
On April 25, 1901 the state of New York became the first state to need vehicle license plates by law. The very very first license plates were named number plates – very first issued in 1893 in France by the police.
Oliver Lodge invented the electric spark ignition (the Lodge Igniter) for the internal combustion engine.
The initial U.S. patent for automobile seat beats was issued to Edward J. Claghorn of New York, New York on February ten, 1885.
Ferdinand Porsche invented the 1st supercharged Mercedes-Benz SS & SSK sports automobiles in Stuttgart, Germany in 1923.
In 1974, psychologist John Voevodsky invented the third brake light, a brake light that is mounted in the base of rear windshields. When drivers press their brakes, a triangle of light will warn following drivers to slow down.
Charles Goodyear invented vulcanized rubber in 1844 that was later utilised for the 1st tires
In 1832, W. H. James invented a rudimentary 3-speed transmission. Panhard and Levassor are credited with the invention of the modern day transmission – installed in their 1895 Panhard. On April 28, 1908, Leonard Dyer obtained one particular of the earliest patents for an automobile transmission.
Buick introduced the first electric turn signals in 1938.
Francis W. Davis invented energy steering. In the 1920s, Davis was the chief engineer of the truck division of the Pierce Arrow Motor Vehicle Firm, and he saw very first hand how tough it was to steer heavy automobiles. Davis quit his job and rented a small engineering shop in Waltham, MA. He developed a hydraulic power steering system that led to power steering. Power steering became commercially obtainable by 1951.
Prior to the manufacture of Henry Ford’s Model A, Mary Anderson was granted her initial patent for a window cleaning device in November of 1903.
Possibility Vought XF8U-1 Crusader US Navy BuNo. 138899. Museum of Flight restoration shop.
Image by wbaiv
Here’s the very first prototype F8 Crusader. Tail quantity 138899. A excellent machine by some measures, the F8 did not endure fools and loss rates were high. On the other hand, Vought got as excellent or better performance in a carrier fighter using the same J-57 engine as the North American Aviation F-100. Supersonic in level flight 1000mph too. Helpful payload and range. And F8s have been credible offensive fighters into the 1970s, more than Vietnam, which F-100s had been not.
Like the Douglas A-four, the F-8 was so a lot far more capable than the airplanes it replaced that it was a pivot about which history turned. F-8s replaced McDonnell Demons and Vought Cutlasses, Grumman Panthers, Cougars and Tigers, Douglas Skyrays and eventually Skyknights. When the F-eight fighters retired from US service, they were replaced by F-four Phantom IIs, and F-14s. The final F-eight squadrons in the fleet had been VF-191 and VF-194, aboard the USS Oriskany. They retired their F8s in 1976. RF-8 photo reconnaissance versions flew with the US Navy Reserve until 1987.
The majority of F-8 survivors had been rebuilt and upgraded at least once.
Export achievement came late, but it was colorful – the French Navy purchased new-construct F-8s when the Jaguar Marine proved to be a bottomless income pit, receiving them in 1964 and 1965, and retired them in 2000. The F-8s replaced the F4Us in French service, but never ever fired a shot in anger.
The Philippines purchased them as air defense fighters as well. The utilised planes had been obtained from Davis Monthan’s desert storage in 1977 and operated till 1988, ultimately withdrawn from service in 1991 soon after heavy harm from the Mt. Pinatubo eruption.
04-11-32-Seattle scanned prints-15