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Place: Loews Portofino Bay, Orlando
Vespa is an Italian brand of scooter manufactured by Piaggio. The name implies wasp in Italian.
The Vespa has evolved from a single model motor scooter manufactured in 1946 by Piaggio & Co. S.p.A. of Pontedera, Italy—to a complete line of scooters and one of seven firms today owned by Piaggio—now Europe’s largest manufacturer of two-wheeled cars and the world’s fourth largest motorcycle manufacturer by unit sales.
From their inception, Vespa scooters have been known for their painted, pressed steel unibody which combines a full cowling for the engine (enclosing the engine mechanism and concealing dirt or grease), a flat floorboard (offering foot protection), and a prominent front fairing (offering wind protection) into a structural unit.
Vespa 150 TAP, modified by the French military, that incorporated an anti tank weapon
Post Planet War II Italy, in light of its agreement to cessation of war activities with the Allies, had its aircraft industry severely restricted in both capability and capacity.
Piaggio emerged from the conflict with its Pontedera fighter plane plant demolished by bombing. Italy’s crippled economy and the disastrous state of the roads did not help in the re-improvement of the automobile markets. Enrico Piaggio, the son of Piaggio’s founder Rinaldo Piaggio, decided to leave the aeronautical field in order to address Italy’s urgent want for a modern day and inexpensive mode of transportation for the masses.
The inspiration for the design and style of the Vespa dates back to Pre-World War II Cushman scooters made in Nebraska, USA. These olive green scooters had been in Italy in big numbers, ordered initially by Washington as field transport for the Paratroops and Marines. The US military had employed them to get around Nazi defense techniques of destroying roads and bridges in the Dolomites (a section of the Alps) and the Austrian border locations.
Piaggio MP5 "Paperino", the initial Piaggio prototype
In 1944, Piaggio engineers Renzo Spolti and Vittorio Casini designed a motorcycle with bodywork fully enclosing the drivetrain and forming a tall splash guard at the front. In addition to the bodywork, the design integrated handlebar-mounted controls, forced air cooling, wheels of small diameter, and a tall central section that had to be straddled. Officially known as the MP5 ("Moto Piaggio no. five"), the prototype was nicknamed "Paperino".
Enrico Piaggio was displeased with the MP5, specifically the tall central section. He contracted aeronautical engineer Corradino D’Ascanio, to redesign the scooter. D’Ascanio, who had earlier been consulted by Ferdinando Innocenti about scooter style and manufacture, created it instantly identified that he hated motorcycles, believing them to be bulky, dirty, and unreliable.
D’Ascanio’s MP6 prototype had its engine mounted beside the rear wheel. The wheel was driven straight from the transmission, eliminating the drive chain and the oil and dirt related with it. The prototype had a unit spar frame with anxiety-bearing steel outer panels.[three] These changes allowed the MP6 to have a step-by way of style without a centre section like that of the MP5 Paperino. The MP6 style also integrated a single sided front suspension, interchangeable front and rear wheels mounted on stub axles, and a spare wheel. Other attributes of the MP6 have been equivalent to these on the Paperino, including the handlebar-mounted controls and the enclosed bodywork with the tall front splash guard.[two]
Upon seeing the MP6 for the 1st time Enrico Piaggio exclaimed: "Sembra una vespa!" ("It resembles a wasp!") Piaggio effectively named his new scooter on the spot.[three] Vespa is each Latin and Italian for wasp—derived from the vehicle’s body shape: the thicker rear portion connected to the front element by a narrow waist, and the steering rod resembled antennae. The name also refers to the high-pitched noise of the two-stroke engine.[citation required]
Supply from: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vespa
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Belem, Lisbon, Portugal
The Willys MB U.S. Army Jeep (formally the Truck, 1/four ton, 4×4) and the Ford GPW were manufactured from 1941 to 1945. These modest four-wheel drive utility vehicles are regarded as the iconic Globe War II Jeep, and inspired numerous related light utility cars. More than the years, the Planet War II Jeep later evolved into the "CJ" civilian Jeep. Its counterpart in the German army was the Volkswagen Kübelwagen, very first prototyped in 1938, also primarily based on a tiny automobile, but which employed an air-cooled engine and was not 4-wheel drive.
Even though the globe had observed widespread mechanisation of the military in the course of Globe War I, and the United States Army had already employed four-wheel drive trucks in it, supplied by the Four Wheel Drive Auto Co. (FWD), by the time Planet War II was dawning, the United States Department of War have been nevertheless seeking a light, cross-nation reconnaissance car.
As tensions had been heightening around the planet in the late 1930s, the U.S. Army asked American automobile makers to tender ideas to replace its current, aging light motor cars, largely motorcycles and sidecars but also some Ford Model Ts.[three] This resulted in numerous prototypes becoming presented to army officials, such as five Marmon-Herrington 4×4 Fords in 1937, and three Austin roadsters by American Bantam in 1938 (Fowler, 1993). Nevertheless, the U.S. Army’s needs were not formalized until July 11, 1940, when 135 U.S. automotive companies had been approached to submit a style conforming to the army’s specifications for a automobile the World War II technical manual TM 9-803 described as "… a common goal, personnel, or cargo carrier particularly adaptable for reconnaissance or command, and designated as 1/four-ton 4×4 Truck."
Marmon-Herrington converted Ford 1/two ton truck, often known as the "Grandfather of the Jeep"
By now the war was below way in Europe, so the Army’s need was urgent and demanding[citation required]. Bids had been to be received by July 22, a span of just eleven days. Manufacturers had been provided 49 days to submit their initial prototype and 75 days for completion of 70 test vehicles. The Army’s Ordnance Technical Committee specifications have been equally demanding: the car would be four-wheel drive, have a crew of three on a wheelbase of no more than 75 (later 80) inches and tracks no far more than 47 inches, feature a fold-down windshield, 660 lb payload and be powered by an engine capable of 85 ft·lb (115 N·m) of torque. The most daunting demand, however, was an empty weight of no more than 1,300 lb (590 kg).
Only two firms entered: American Bantam Auto Company and Willys-Overland Motors. Though Willys-Overland was the low bidder, Bantam received the bid, becoming the only firm committing to deliver a pilot model in 49 days and production examples in 75. Under the leadership of designer Karl Probst, Bantam constructed their very first prototype, dubbed the "Blitz Buggy" (and in retrospect "Old Number One"), and delivered it to the Army vehicle test center at Camp Holabird, Maryland on September 23, 1940. This presented Army officials with the 1st of what eventually evolved into the Globe War II U.S. Army Jeeps: the Willys MB and Ford GPW.
The Bantam no.1 ‘Blitz Buggy’
Given that Bantam did not have the production capacity or fiscal stability to provide on the scale required by the War Department, the other two bidders, Ford and Willys, have been encouraged to comprehensive their personal pilot models for testing. The contract for the new reconnaissance car was to be determined by trials. As testing of the Bantam prototype took location from September 27 to October 16, Ford and Willys technical representatives present at Holabird were provided ample opportunity to study the vehicle’s overall performance. Furthermore, in order to expedite production, the War Division forwarded the Bantam blueprints to Ford and Willys, claiming the government owned the design and style. Bantam did not dispute this move due to its precarious monetary scenario. By November 1940, Ford and Willys each and every submitted prototypes to compete with the Bantam in the Army’s trials. The pilot models, the Willys Quad and the Ford Pygmy, turned out quite related to each other and have been joined in testing by Bantam’s entry, now evolved into a Mark II known as the BRC 60. By then the U.S. and its armed forces have been already below such stress that all 3 cars were declared acceptable and orders for 1,500 units per company have been provided for field testing. At this time it was acknowledged the original weight limit (which Bantam had ignored) was unrealistic, and it was raised to two,160 pounds (980 kg).
For these respective pre-production runs, every single vehicle received revisions and a new name. Bantam’s became the BRC 40, and the business ceased motor car production after the final a single was constructed in December 1941. Following reducing the vehicle’s weight by 240 pounds, Willys’ changed the designation to "MA" for "Military" model "A". The Fords went into production as "GP", with "G" for a "Government" variety contract and "P" frequently utilised by Ford to designate any passenger auto with a wheelbase of 80 inches.[four]
Willys MA jeep at the Desert Training Center, Indio, California, June 1942
Willys MB utilized by former Philippine President Ramon Magsaysay
By July 1941, the War Department preferred to standardize and decided to select a single manufacturer to provide them with the next order for an additional 16,000 cars. Willys won the contract mainly due to its a lot more strong engine (the "Go Devil") which soldiers raved about, and its reduce cost and silhouette. The design and style features the Bantam and Ford entries had which had been an improvement more than Willys’ have been then incorporated into the Willys auto, moving it from an "A" designation to "B", thus the "MB" nomenclature. Most notable was a flat wide hood, adapted from Ford GP.
By October 1941, it became apparent Willys-Overland could not preserve up with production demand and Ford was contracted to create them as nicely. The Ford vehicle was then designated GPW, with the "W" referring to the "Willys" licensed design. Throughout Globe War II, Willys made 363,000 Jeeps and Ford some 280,000. Approximately 51,000 were exported to the U.S.S.R. below the Lend-Lease program.
A further 13,000 (roughly) amphibian jeeps have been constructed by Ford below the name GPA (nicknamed ‘Seep’ for Sea Jeep). Inspired by the bigger DUKW, the car was produced too speedily and proved to be too heavy, as well unwieldy, and of insufficient freeboard. In spite of participating effectively in the Sicily landings (July 1943) most GPAs had been routed to the U.S.S.R. beneath the Lend-Lease program. The Soviets were sufficiently pleased with its potential to cross rivers to create their personal version of it after the war, the GAZ-46.
Origin of the term "jeep"
Principal report: The origin of the term "jeep"
One account of the origin of the term "jeep" starts when the prototypes have been getting verified at military bases. The term "jeep" was used by Army mechanics for any untried or untested cars.[five]
Though most most likely due to a bastardization of the acronym "GP", utilized to designate the vehicle, another probably aspect in the popularization of the jeep name came from the fact that the automobile produced quite an impression on soldiers at the time, so a lot so that they informally named it following Eugene the Jeep, a character in the Popeye comic strip and cartoons created by E. C. Segar as early as mid-March of 1936. Eugene the Jeep was Popeye’s "jungle pet" and was "small, in a position to move in between dimensions and could solve seemingly impossible difficulties."
In early 1941, Willys-Overland staged a press occasion in Washington, D.C., getting the vehicle demonstrate its prowess by driving up the Capitol steps. Irving "Red" Hausmann, a test driver on the Willys development team who had accompanied the automobile for its testing at Camp Holabird, had heard soldiers there referring to it as a jeep. He was enlisted to go to the event and give a demonstration ride to a group of dignitaries, such as Katherine Hillyer, a reporter for the Washington Everyday News. When asked by the reporter, Hausmann too called it a Jeep. Hillyer’s report appeared in the newspaper on February 20, 1941, with a photo showing a jeep going up the Capitol methods and a caption like the term ‘jeep’. This is believed to be the most probably lead to of the term getting fixed in public awareness. Even even though Hausmann did not create or invent the word Jeep, he very effectively could be the one most responsible for its very first news media usage.
Photostat facsimile of the 1941 post
Photostat facsimile of Red Hausmann’s jeep becoming demonstrated for the reporter
Willys MB (US Army)
Willys in a museum
Willys produced its 1st 25,000 MB Jeeps with a welded flat iron "slat" radiator grille. It was Ford who 1st made and implemented the now familiar and distinctive stamped, slotted steel grille into its cars, which was lighter, employed fewer sources, and was less pricey to create. Along with numerous other design attributes innovated by Ford, this was adopted by Willys and implemented into the regular Planet War II Jeep by April 1942.
These days, Jeep makers proudly retain the automobile’s historical connection to the visage of its predecessors by utilizing a trademarked grille featuring a standard quantity of vertical openings or ‘slots’. Nonetheless, in order to be able to get theirs trademarked, Willys gave their post-war jeeps seven slots alternatively of Ford’s nine-slot design. Via a series of corporate take-overs and mergers, AM Basic Corporation ended up with the rights to use the seven-slot grille as effectively, which they in turn extended to Chrysler when it acquired American Motors Corporation, then manufacturer of Jeep, in 1987.
After the war Ford unsuccessfully sued Willys for the rights to the term "Jeep", leaving Willys with complete rights to the name.[six] From 1945 onwards, Willys took its four-wheel drive vehicle to the public with its CJ (Civilian Jeep) versions, creating these the very first mass-produced 4×4 civilian cars. In 1948, US Federal Trade Commission agreed with American Bantam, that the notion of producing the Jeep was originated and developed by the American Bantam in collaboration with some US Army officers. The commission forbade Willys from claiming directly or by implication, that it designed or developed the Jeep, and permitted it only to claim, that it contributed to the improvement of the vehicle. However, American Bantam went bankrupt by 1950, and Willys was granted the "Jeep" trademark in 1950.
The very first CJs were basically the very same as the MB, except for such alterations as vacuum-powered windshield wipers, a tailgate (and consequently a side-mounted spare tire), and civilian lighting. Also, the civilian jeeps had amenities like naugahyde seats, chrome trim, and have been available in a range of colors. Mechanically, a heftier T-90 transmission replaced the Willys MB’s T84 in order to appeal to the initially considered rural purchasers demographic.
Willys-Overland and its successors, Willys Motors and Kaiser Jeep supplied the U.S. military as well as numerous allied nations with military jeeps by way of the late 1960s.
Dutch Army M38A1
M606 in Colombia
In 1950, the initial postwar military jeep, the M38 (or MC), was launched, primarily based on the 1949 CJ-3A. In 1953, it was quickly followed by the M38A1 (or MD), featuring an all-new "round-fendered" physique in order to clear the also new, taller, Willys Hurricane engine. This jeep was later developed into the CJ-five launched in 1955. Similarly, its ambulance version, the M170 (or MDA), featuring a 20-inch wheelbase stretch, was later turned into the civilian CJ-6.
Prior to the CJ-five, Willys presented the public a cheaper alternative with the taller F-head engine in the type of the CJ-3B, a CJ-3A physique with a taller hood. This was speedily turned into the M606 jeep (mainly utilized for export, via 1968) by equipping it with the available heavy-duty options such as bigger tires and springs, and by adding black-out lighting, olive drab paint, and a trailer hitch. Following 1968, M606A2 and -A3 versions of the CJ-five were produced in a comparable way for friendly foreign governments.
Licenses to produce CJ-3Bs were issued to companies in several various nations, and some, such as the Mahindra corporation in India, continue to create them in some form or an additional to this day. The French army, for instance, produced its Willys MB by purchasing the Willys license to allow the manufacture of their Hotchkiss M201.
The World War II Jeep inspired many imitations. Creations from competing producers such as Land Rover, Toyota, Nissan, Mitsubishi, Suzuki, and a couple of other folks all owe their beginnings in the 4×4 planet to the inspiration of the Willys Jeep.
The compact military jeep continued to be utilised in the Korean and Vietnam Wars. In Korea, it was mostly deployed in the kind of the MB, as properly as the M38 and M38A1 (introduced in 1952 and 1953), its direct descendants. In Vietnam, the most used jeep was the then newly developed Ford M151 MUTT, which featured such state-of-the-art technologies as a unibody building and all around independent suspension with coil-springs. Apart from the mainstream of—by today’s standards—relatively little jeeps, an even smaller sized vehicle was created for the US Marines, suitable for airlifting and manhandling, the M422 ‘Mighty Mite’.
Eventually, the U.S. military decided on a fundamentally distinct concept, choosing a a lot bigger car that not only took more than the part of the jeep, but also replaced all other light military wheeled vehicles: the HMMWV ("Humvee").
In 1991, the Willys-Overland Jeep MB was designated an International Historic Mechanical Engineering Landmark by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers.
Sinsheim – Technikmuseum Sinsheim – DeLorean DMC-12 01
Image by Daniel Mennerich
The DeLorean DMC-12 (commonly referred to simply as The DeLorean as it was the only model ever created by the company) is a sports automobile manufactured by John DeLorean’s DeLorean Motor Organization for the American market in 1981–82. Featuring gull-wing doors with a fiberglass "underbody", to which non-structural brushed stainless steel panels are affixed, the vehicle became iconic for its look as a modified time machine in the Back to the Future film trilogy.
The first prototype appeared in October 1976, and production officially began in 1981 in Dunmurry, a suburb of south west Belfast, Northern Ireland (with the initial DMC-12 rolling off the production line on January 21). Throughout its production, several features of the automobile have been changed, such as the hood style, wheels and interior. Approximately 9,000 DMC-12s had been produced ahead of production halted in early 1983.
The DMC-12 was the only model created by the firm, which would go into liquidation as the US auto industry went via its biggest slump because the 1930s. In 2007, about six,500 DeLorean Motor vehicles were believed to still exist.
British entrepreneur Stephen Wynne primarily based in Texas started a separate firm in 1995 employing the "DeLorean Motor Business" name and shortly thereafter acquired the trademark on the stylized "DMC" logo as nicely as the remaining parts inventory of the original DeLorean Motor Organization. The business, at its suburban Humble, Texas location, completes newly assembled cars from new old stock (NOS) parts, original gear manufacturer (OEM) and reproduction components on a "made to order" basis making use of current Automobile Identification Number (VIN) plates.