Image from web page 370 of “McElroy’s Philadelphia city directory” (1837)

Image from web page 370 of “McElroy’s Philadelphia city directory” (1837)

Verify out these tooling make manufactory china images:

Image from page 370 of “McElroy’s Philadelphia city directory” (1837)
tooling make manufactory china
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Identifier: mcelroysphiladel1839amce
Title: McElroy’s Philadelphia city directory
Year: 1837 (1830s)
Authors: A. McElroy &amp Co Orrin Rogers (Firm) E.C. &amp J. Biddle (Firm)
Subjects: Business enterprises
Publisher: Philadelphia : A. McElroy &amp Co.
Contributing Library: Philadelphia Museum of Art, Library
Digitizing Sponsor: Lyrasis Members and Sloan Foundation

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Text Appearing Prior to Image:
^^ Plane Manufacturer, N E. corner of Callowhili &amp Fourth street, Philada*^^ Patent Ploughs^ Fillisters, Sash and Grooving Planes, ^^ Superior to any produced on tVe old principle. Tools of all descriptions,^^ components and workmanship warranted. ^^ A liberal discount allowed to Wholesale Dealers. I Shoe-Makers Tool Manufactory, and I No. 50 Dock st. under Second, upper side, Philadelphia. ^ Boot Trees, Shoe Trees, Cribbing Types, &ampc. manafactured to order,and continually on hand. mm

Text Appearing After Image:
I B 1^ ^ Situated in the Reduce Saloon of the new Enikling erected by the Museum Com „^^,„ ^5 pany, at the corner of 9th and George streets, Philadelphia, is open to visitors daily f^^ ^ (Sunjays excepted) from 10 oclock, A. M, until 9 oclock, P. M. ^^M ^ Tnis comprehensive Collection was formed by the Proprietor during many years resi- ^^ It dence in China, and is usually acknowledged by the numerous thousand Visitors that ^^ ^1 have viewed the numerous departments in this Saloon, to be the most striking illus- c^^ ^ tration of the Manners, Customs, and peculiarities of this fascinating portion of the vS§| ^ East, than any function that has heretofore appeared, forming in itself a really complete and 5^^ fi total History of China. Philadelphia, Februnry 1st. 1839. ^^ fe A A A A A AjMiJiil -^„. -^-JtAk^M^A^Ai^^^t^.^M4kA0M^^ii^0A&amp om ^f Carving, Turning &amp Pattern Creating,§$ *m Im ■^-^ mm Si * a^aa 09^3 as/a 82 South Fifth street, between Spruce and Pine^ Begs to inform his Patrons,

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William Weis’ burial website was graced with a spectacular urn
tooling make manufactory china
Image by Jim Surkamp
Pots Thru Time With Joy Bridy – This is regional clay dug up from around the foundation of my property and I’m going to approach it in this old bath tub, and just before I procedure it, I break it up in little pieces and screen it by way of some hardware cloth, which helps to get any stones, weeds, detritus out of it. This clay does not have high plasticity which means it is a little harder to work with. plasticity definition: Capable of becoming formed into a shape or moulded with no cracking. It may possibly break and crack as I function with it, but that’s possibly what I like about it. It adds character, instead of plasticity. It is also reddish brown stoneware, not genuine white like a porcelain and not super iron-rich. It will not be black sort of an orangish color when it’s fired. It will have some porousness. I fire it to a higher sufficient temperature that it’s useful as functional ware as properly as sculptural. This clay is also nearby clay and I’ll break it up into small marble-size pieces and slake it down in water in which I’ll run my hands by way of it for about ten or fifteen minutes (per) every bucket to get any rocks and stones and grass out. Then I’ll procedure this clay – when it’s wet – by drying it out slowly on prime of bed sheets in the sun – so it’s a good functioning consistancy. Following I make the pieces I bisque fire them as soon as. Then I’ll glaze and fire them in my wood kiln. (This is my wood kiln right here). This is my wood kiln. I made and constructed it 5 years ago. It’s a quite old and conventional style and it’s fueled 1 hundred per cent with wood. I don’t know what the method would have been in the early eras of Weis pottery – if they would have utilised wood (They employed wood and they utilized groundhog kilns). Ahh groundhog kilns are the type of kiln that I’m trained in. They tend to be lengthy and flame-like, and quite low and in the ground and they fire for a equivalent amount of time as this kiln. When I fired this kiln, it fires for three days about the clock and Weis pottery would have carried out a quite related issue. As soon as you start off a firing, you can not leave it alone. You have to keep with it the whole time. Pots fill the chamber all the way up to the leading, from the side wall, all the way up to the bagwall which you can see on the inside. The flame comes in from the fire box into the ware chamber, brings heat and ash and deposits- ash on the pots – leaves flame markings on the pots – then leaves via the exit flues into the chimney and straight up. My kiln reaches 2400 degrees, which is a higher, (for) stoneware temperature. Traditionally, I believe, kilns had been fired a tiny cooler, most likely 2000-2100 degrees. But wood can attain any temperature you would like depending on your combustion zone, your ware chamber, and your chimney. A fifth generation potter Davis P. Brown observed: “Speaking of firing, lots of folks think red’s HOT. Red-hot ain’t even hot when it’s HOT and you look in them, it’s like seeking into the sun.” I use scrap wood. I use something that doesn’t burn in the wood stove and anything that I would burn in a bonfire. So lots of limbs. The skinny limbs have the most minerals so you get the most interesting deposits and they permit for the most flexibility in gaining heat. And it’s all scrap. (I did some research, Joy, displaying the information about the Weis’ pottery operation in 1850. And they reported that they spent seven hundred period dollars for a year’s function and they utilised six hundred cords of wood and a whole lot of lead. what does that signify to you, as a potter?). Six hundred cords of wood is a lot of wood! For me a cord of wood is eight foot by eight foot by four foot, and in a firing I go through perhaps two cords of wood. With the groundhog style kiln, they have been really inefficient. So they had been stoking wood consistently and a lot of that fuel was leaving the kiln as smoke. Today we know a tiny a lot more on how to capture that fuel greater. “A,” it tells me that we had a lot of wood in this area. Six hundred cords of wood is a huge quantity of wood. And “B,” the lead is intriguing because a lot of our neighborhood clays makes a really fantastic “slip,” that also makes a glaze on the inside of the pot. (A slip?) A slip is like a watered down clay. So a “paint” or a “glaze.” A lot of folks use the terms back and forth. It would be what you would glaze with. So if they were using lead, it would be really bad for their overall health. They possibly didn’t reside long. and “B” it is costly. Even then it was pricey, but it was what people believed they necessary to do. Presently we know that we can use all these organic factors, and the types that I work in are much much more akin to what the Weis potters could have been undertaking in that I use a lot of neighborhood clays. I mix my glazes out of ashes and clay bodies. So I have a quite low overhead compared to what they did in that I’m not buying any lead, I’m not purchasing any expensive colorants that they would have done. My studio is comparable to the way they would perform in that I have a closed technique. My water comes from a rain barrel. I do not have any running water. My kiln is fired with wood. I don’t fire a gas kiln which a lot of people do today. And my clay is closed-cycle: what ever clay comes into my studio I maintain recycling until it turns into pots. And, something I don’t like I “slip” back down and make clay out of it once again, which would have been a practice in the course of their time. So every little thing stays inside the studio. (So in several methods, you are performing a conventional strategy that the Weises did, but with higher efficiency). It could have been an aesthetic choice for them in that they chose to do especially what they were performing. As it is now, I could use a quite high-priced overhead, making use of porcelain from China and Europe and utilizing glazes that I acquire pre-mixed that have pricey rare earth components in them. But I favor the more elementary approach in that I like utilizing clay. I like the variables that come into play with wood firing, and with utilizing ash glazes and with mixing a lot of my personal ingredients. This my kiln. This is the firebox of my Bourry box wood kiln. It is diverse from a groundhog style in that the groundhog style kilns would have been in the ground. You would have had to crawl to get in them. You would have entered only via the front by means of a quite tiny opening and had to load every thing while on your knees. This is the front. This is the fire box. This is exactly where the fire starts. I load it through the ware chamber door which then gets bricked up with rows of bricks. This side is the firebox exactly where the actual fire happens, and it begins in the bottom. When the fire hits about eleven hundred degrees, I can close up this door. (How long does that take Joy?) . It requires a day and a half. Then I can open the side-stoking doors on both sides and begin stoking across the leading, which permits me to attain a temperature of twenty-four hundred degrees inside the chamber. It’s hotter in the firebox, but that is the chamber temperature. (What type of design is this known as?) This is called a “bourry” box – B-O-U-R-R-Y. It’a an Australian design. What it does – it’s a quite efficient, wood-burning kiln due to the fact the wood is burning up here and the coal bed is down under. Air comes in. It burns the wood, but then all the smoke and the waste merchandise that would be going up the chimney burn off more than the coal bed. So I get what we refer to as a “double burn cycle:” getting heat in the course of the first burn of the wood and extra heat as the smoke and gasses burn off. So it is quite efficient. I get no smoke and no waste product in that way, and I use half as considerably wood that I would in a kiln of this size without having the Bourry box fire. It’s a crossed-dressed kiln because the fire box is here and then every little thing goes up into the chamber and then back down across from the firebox. It is a lot more to the flame pattern. Groundhog kilns are usually referred to as updraft although they are kind of a hybrid, simply because if you envision a flame-shaped kiln it is also going uphill. So your firebox is down beneath and you are stoking the wood, and then the kiln goes up and the chimney’s at the best. So it has a little distinct pull to it. The chimney is usually the engine of the kiln. It’s often what’s pulling the heat and flame via the kiln. This is known as “wedging” the clay and what it does is it increases plasticity, which implies that as you are working with it, it will stretch a small less complicated. It also removes air bubbles and makes it smoother to perform with in general. Each and every piece I make has to go across the wedging board. (This is the method they would do back in the 1800s?). This is as old as it gets: with a heavy round wheel at the bottom and a little light round wheel at the prime. It is been carried out in every single culture across the globe. My rims are probably thin compared to theirs (Weises), because I’m used to a far more contemporary appear and feel. Theirs possibly would have been a little beefier, less difficult to grab, less complicated to use. (Somebody created the comment that they have been like the fiesta ware of their period) um-hm. Yeh. That’s all they had. And they’re all remarkably equivalent no matter exactly where you go, especially in the Appalachian foothills. If you did/do the kick wheel, you can not be in a hurry. This would have been a relative of a classic crock kind, which would have been beneficial in each and every kitchen across the county throughout the years the Weis household was in operation. It would have been their bread and butter actually. And their tools would have been incredibly equivalent: a wooden stick, some type of sponge. Some thing with a point just in case. And for decoration: a fingernail everyone would have their decoration around right here (side of crock), appears to have been some fingernail marks. We can do one more one particular on the electric. This is starting to center the clay on the wheelhead, and before I can truly make the piece, the clay has to be in the center of the wheel entirely. These are all various techniques that support make that happen. This is known as wedging on the wheel, exactly where I squeeze it up and then lean it back down, and it also aids to align the particles. I have a modern day-day wheel here. This is an electric wheel, which is silent, which is really nice. I center the clay if it comes closer to the beginning shape that I want. And the first point that I do to really throw the pot is known as “opening.” I sink my thumbs into the middle and start to develop the “inside” versus the “outside.” Now I’m setting the bottom. Without compressing the clay, you finish up getting cracks and flaws in the bottom. Making use of the stress of my fingers against the wheelhead, compressing the clay in between the two tends to make for a strong, useful pot. Next, I’ll actually pull up the walls of the vessel. This is the component that appears fun – and IS fun. As the pot gets closer to the form that I want, I fine-tune it with distinct tools. All of them could have been utilized in any era. This a wooden rib, and, once more, it compresses the clay particles. What I’m searching for is a wall that’s even – thin, but not as well thin. I want it to be sturdy when it is utilised, but not also heavy. So I dance in between thin versus sturdy. At this point exactly where the wall feels very good, that I start off to think about the type. I locate a single of the most critical components is the rim. It has to appear good, but it also has to be compressed, because it is really typical to bang it on a kitchen sink and it would chip if it wasn’t compressed extremely effectively. So it’s critical to invest a little extra time, generating sure that functional pots actually function. (Is that possibly why the Weises had kind of a powerful lip?) Yes. A little further clay at the foot, because that is also a spot. I’m fortunate sufficient to come out of the tradition of functional pottery throughout history, when I was in Pennsylvania I utilized to check out the groundhog kiln web sites there. What became of the Smart family? Wrote Mary Bedinger Mitchell of her early years in Shepherdstown in the 1850s: “The town was thriving. There was a brick kiln and a really exciting primitive manufactory of the glazed crocks or earthen pots so significantly in use. It was carried on by an old man in the old home and had quite a medieval flavor.” Right after the Weis men would dig up and load the low-plasticity, red-burning clay on the outer bend in the Potomac nearby, they would bring it by wagon back to their worksite. To kids like Mary the clay mill “was of absorbing interest, and they hoped for a ride on the extended wooden shaft or tongue, to which the gentle horse was hitched along going round and round in a prescribed circle, as it patiently ground the clay into a fine smooth powder. A stone burr operating on the exact same principle as a flour mill did the work. Time progressed and tastes changed in favor of the blue glazed crocks and jugs and the Weis manufactory went into a long, slow decline by means of the rest of the 19th century, the family lastly selling their house to George Beltzhoover. Ever faithful at St. Peter’s Lutheran Church, William Weis’ burial internet site was graced with a beautiful urn – so gorgeous that vandals threatened it. So, right now the urn and Weis’ pots bear witness on a secure shelf at St. Peters, just as other individuals bear witness at the Shepherdstown Historic museum, The County Visitors Center, the Jefferson County Museum, and there is the work to preserve their memory by Pam and Ren Parziale. To this their standard abilities are also kept fresh by Joy Bridy in her modern day pottery, but also keeping the techniques of the Weises close at hand, literally.

Thanks to Joy Bridy at joybridy.com

Produced achievable with the generous, community-minded support of American Public University Method (apus.edu)

Researched, written, created by Jim Surkamp.

Primary References:

Weis Pots courtesy St. Peter’s Lutheran Church, Shepherdstown, WV Jefferson County Museum, Charles Town, WV and Historic Shepherdstown Museum.
wikiclay.com
heat-function.blogspot.com
ceramica.wikia.com
wvculture.org
wikipedia.org
nlm.nih.gov
studiopottery.com
wvgeohistory.org

Barber, E. A. (1893). “The Pottery and Porcelain of the United States.” New York, NY: G.P. Putnam’s &amp Sons.

Bourry, Emile Wilton P. Rix. (1901). ”Treatise on Ceramic Industries: A Comprehensive Manual for Pottery, Tile and Brick Functions.” London, UK: Scott &amp Greenwood &amp Co.

POTTERY-EARTHENWARE-KILN-TOOLS
Encyclopédie, ou dictionnaire raisonné des sciences, des arts et des métiers (Encyclopaedia, or a Systematic Dictionary of the Sciences, Arts, and Crafts). 1751. edited by Denis Diderot and Jean le Rond d’Alembert Paris, Fr: André le Breton, publisher.

Kenamond, A. D. (1963). “Prominent Guys of Shepherdstown, 1762-1962.” Charles Town, WV: Jefferson County Historical Society.

Mitchell, Mary B. “Memories.” edited by Nina Mitchell. Shepherd University Library.

Moler, Mrs. M. S. R.(1940). “George Weis and His Pottery.” Magazine of the Jefferson County Historical Society Vol. 6. pp.16-17.

Morton, Clyde D. (1987). “The Weis Pottery and the Genealogy of the Potters.” Magazine of the Jefferson County Historical Society Vol. 52. pp. 48-55.

Parziale, Reynolds and Pamela. (1981). “Pottery in the 1800s. The Weis Pottery, Shepherdstown, West Virginia.” Magazine of the Jefferson County Historical Society Vol. 47. pp. 23-29.

Rice, A. H. John Baer Stoudt. (1929). “The Shenandoah Pottery.” Strasburg, VA: Shenandoah Publishing Property, Inc.

Sanderson, Robert Coll Monigue. (2000). “Wood-fired Ceramics: Contemporary Practices.” Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press. pp. 10-14.

Sweezy, Nancy. (1994). “Raised in Clay: The Southern Pottery Tradition.” Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press.

Timbrell, John. (2005). “The Poison Paradox: Chemical compounds as Pals and Foes.” Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. Print.

Weaver, Emma. (1967). “Artisans of the Appalachians.” Photos by Edward L. Dupuy. Asheville, North Carolina: Miller Printing Co.

1860 U.S. Federal Census – Population – National Archive and Records Administration (NARA).