US-Route-66 Up via the 1950s, camping remained the most well-liked way to spend the night on Route 66. Ca 1951

US-Route-66 Up via the 1950s, camping remained the most well-liked way to spend the night on Route 66. Ca 1951

Check out these rapid prototype prices images:

US-Route-66 Up through the 1950s, camping remained the most popular way to spend the night on Route 66. Ca 1951
rapid prototype prices
Image by clamshack
In 1965 at the tender age of 21 left Boston in an old Chevy much like the one pictured above. I bought it from an acquaintance for and only after the trip was over did I discover he never owned it and it was still registered to his girlfriend.
With only a few hundred dollars, 15 tuna sandwiches, no map or clear destination -other than Sunny So Cal – I stumbled upon Route 66 somewhere near Chicago which I recognized from the TV Series of the early 60s. I stayed on 66 much of the way with occasional aimless wanderings away from the mother road.
I stayed at a few of these ‘campgrounds’ a night? but mostly slept along the side of the road. I kept my military duffle bag (just released from active duty) and a bible in clear view in the trunk – the police occasionally would stop me and want to search the car and the sight of those two things seemed to reassure them I was no drug using hippy, which I wasn’t.
I recall at some point wandering into Las Vegas and immediately having two motorcycle cops ‘escort me’ through the city and out into the desert again.
Somewhere in Utah? in the middle of the night I stopped at a service station and the attendant ‘pretended’ to pour a quart of oil into the motor, off I went and burned the valves.
I recall mile after endless mile of desert and then all of a sudden I was in Barstow-San Bernardino and on a Freeway in heavy traffic all the way to the coast.
Barely made it into Los Angeles and abandoned the car in a gas station after meeting a kind person who saw the Massachusetts license plate on the disabled car at the curb and offered to rent me a room in his mother’s garage near Inglewood.

National Historic Route 66 Federation

History of Route 66

The Beginning

Although entrepreneurs Cyrus Avery of Tulsa, Oklahoma, and John Woodruff of Springfield, Missouri deserve most of the credit for promoting the idea of an interregional link between Chicago and Los Angeles, their lobbying efforts were not realized until their dreams merged with the national program of highway and road development.

While legislation for public highways first appeared in 1916, with revisions in 1921, it was not until Congress enacted an even more comprehensive version of the act in 1925 that the government executed its plan for national highway construction.

Officially, the numerical designation 66 was assigned to the Chicago-to-Los Angeles route in the summer of 1926. With that designation came its acknowledgment as one of the nation’s principal east-west arteries.

From the outset, public road planners intended U.S. 66 to connect the main streets of rural and urban communities along its course for the most practical of reasons: most small towns had no prior access to a major national thoroughfare.

The Formative Years

Route 66 was a highway spawned by the demands of a rapidly changing America. Contrasted with the Lincoln, the Dixie, and other highways of its day, route 66 did not follow a traditionally linear course. Its diagonal course linked hundreds of predominantly rural communities in Illinois, Missouri, and Kansas to Chicago; thus enabling farmers to transport grain and produce for redistribution. The diagonal configuration of Route 66 was particularly significant to the trucking industry, which by 1930 had come to rival the railroad for preeminence in the American shipping industry. The abbreviated route between Chicago and the Pacific coast traversed essentially flat prairie lands and enjoyed a more temperate climate than northern highways, which made it especially appealing to truckers.

The Depression Years and the War

In his famous social commentary, The Grapes of Wrath, John Steinbeck proclaimed U. S. Highway 66 the “Mother Road.” Steinbeck’s classic 1939 novel, combined with the 1940 film recreation of the epic odyssey, served to immortalize Route 66 in the American consciousness. An estimated 210,000 people migrated to California to escape the despair of the Dust Bowl. Certainly in the minds of those who endured that particularly painful experience, and in the view of generations of children to whom they recounted their story, Route 66 symbolized the “road to opportunity.”

From 1933 to 1938 thousands of unemployed male youths from virtually every state were put to work as laborers on road gangs to pave the final stretches of the road. As a result of this monumental effort, the Chicago-to-Los Angeles highway was reported as “continuously paved” in 1938.

Completion of this all-weather capability on the eve of World War II was particularly significant to the nation’s war effort. The experience of a young Army captain, Dwight D. Eisenhower, who found his command bogged down in spring mud near Ft. Riley, Kansas, while on a coast-to-coast maneuver, left an indelible impression. The War Department needed improved highways for rapid mobilization during wartime and to promote national defense during peacetime. At the outset of American involvement in World War II, the War Department singled out the West as ideal for military training bases in part because of its geographic isolation and especially because it offered consistently dry weather for air and field maneuvers.

Route 66 helped to facilitate the single greatest wartime manpower mobilization in the history of the nation. Between 1941 and 1945 the government invested approximately billion in capital projects throughout California, a large portion of which were in the Los Angeles-San Diego area. This enormous capital outlay served to underwrite entirely new industries that created thousands of civilian jobs.

The Postwar Years

A fter the war, Americans were more mobile than ever before. Thousands of soldiers, sailors, and airmen who received military training in California, Arizona, New Mexico, Oklahoma, and Texas abandoned the harsh winters of Chicago, New York City, and Boston for the “barbecue culture” of the Southwest and the West. Again, for many, Route 66 facilitated their relocation.

One such emigrant was Robert William Troup, Jr., of Harrisburg, Pennsylvania. Bobby Troup, former pianist with the Tommy Dorsey band and ex-Marine captain, penned a lyrical road map of the now famous cross-country road in which the words, “get your kicks on Route 66″ became a catch phrase for countless motorists who moved back and forth between Chicago and the Pacific Coast. The popular recording was released in 1946 by Nat King Cole one week after Troup’s arrival in Los Angeles.

Store owners, motel managers, and gas station attendants recognized early on that even the poorest travelers required food, automobile maintenance, and adequate lodging. Just as New Deal work relief programs provided employment with the construction and the maintenance of Route 66, the appearance of countless tourist courts, garages, and diners promised sustained economic growth after the road’s completion. If military use of the highway during wartime ensured the early success of roadside businesses, the demands of the new tourism industry in the postwar decades gave rise to modern facilities that guaranteed long-term prosperity.

Roadside Architecture

The evolution of tourist-targeted facilities is well represented in the roadside architecture along U. S. Highway 66. For example, most Americans who drove the route did not stay in hotels. They preferred the accommodations that emerged from automobile travel – motels. Motels evolved from earlier features of the American roadside such as the auto camp and the tourist home. The auto camp developed as townspeople along Route 66 roped off spaces in which travelers could camp for the night. Camp supervisors – some of whom were employed by the various states – provided water, fuel wood, privies or flush toilets, showers, and laundry facilities free of charge.

The national outgrowth of the auto camp and tourist home was the cabin camp (sometimes called cottages) that offered minimal comfort at affordable prices. Many of these cottages are still in operation. Eventually, auto camps and cabin camps gave way to motor courts in which all of the rooms were under a single roof. Motor courts offered additional amenities, such as adjoining restaurants, souvenir shops, and swimming pools. Among the more famous still associated with Route 66 are the El Vado and Zia Motor Lodge in Albuquerque, New Mexico.

In the early years of Route 66, service station prototypes were developed regionally through experimentation, and then were adopted universally across the country. Buildings were distinctive as gas stations, yet clearly associated with a particular petroleum company. Most evolved from the simplest “filling station” concept – a house with one or two service pumps in front – and then became more elaborate, with service bays and tire outlets. Among the most outstanding examples of the evolution of gas stations along Route 66 are Soulsby’s Shell station in Mount Olive, Illinois; Bob Audettes’ gas station complex in Barton, New Mexico; and the Tower Fina Station in Shamrock, Texas.

Route 66 and many points of interest along the way were familiar landmarks by the time a new generation of postwar motorists hit the road in the 1960′s. It was during this period that the television series, “Route 66″, starring Martin Milner and George Maharis drove into the living rooms of America every Friday. By today’s standards, the show is rather unbelievable but in the 1960′s, it brought Americans back to the route looking for new adventure.

Excessive truck use during World War II and the comeback of the automobile industry immediately following the war brought great pressure to bear on America’s highways. The national highway system had deteriorated to an appalling condition. Virtually all roads were functionally obsolete and dangerous because of narrow pavements and antiquated structural features that reduced carrying capacity.

Ironically, the public lobby for rapid mobility and improved highways that gained Route 66 its enormous popularity in earlier decades also signaled its demise beginning in the mid-1950′s. Mass federal sponsorship for an interstate system of divided highways markedly increased with Dwight D. Eisenhower’s second term in the ‘White House. General Eisenhower had returned from Germany very impressed by the strategic value of Hitler’s Autobahn. “During World War II,” he recalled later, “I saw the superlative system of German national highways crossing that country and offering the possibility, often lacking in the United States, to drive with speed and safety at the same time.”

The congressional response to the president’s commitment was the passage of the Federal Aid Highway Act of 1956, which provided a comprehensive financial umbrella to uderwrite the cost of the national interstate and defense highway system.

By 1970, nearly all segments of original Route 66 were bypassed by a modern four-lane highway.

In many respects, the physical remains of Route 66 mirror the evolution of highway development in the United States from a rudimentary hodge-podge of state and country roads to a federally subsidized complex of uniform, well-designed interstate expressways. Various alignments of the legendary road, many of which are still detectable, illustrate the evolution of road engineering from coexistence with the surrounding landscape to domination of it.

Route 66 symbolized the renewed spirit of optimism that pervaded the country after economic catastrophe and global war. Often called, “The Main Street of America”, it linked a remote and under-populated region with two vital 20th century cities – Chicago and Los Angeles.

The outdated, poorly maintained vestiges of U.S. Highway 66 completely succumbed to the interstate system in October 1984 when the final section of the original road was bypassed by Interstate 40 at Williams, Arizona.

Now that the highway has celebrated its 75th birthday, its contribution to the nation must be evaluated in the broader context of American social and cultural history. The appearance of U.S. Highway 66 on the American scene coincided with unparalleled economic strife and global instability, yet it hastened the most comprehensive westward movement and economic growth in United States history. Like the early, long-gone trails of the nineteenth century, Route 66 helped to spirit a second and perhaps more permanent mass relocation of Americans. We only hope it does not meet the fate of these once-famous arteries.

Help us save this invaluable piece of Americana before it is only a memory.

Fill in your information below to receive updates and offers from the National Historic Route 66 Federation.

© 2014 National Historic Route 66 Federation. All Rights Reserved

Pedestrian plaza outside Los Angeles World Trade Center, Bunker Hill Towers, and Disney Hall
rapid prototype prices
Image by jann_on
Pedestrian plaza is part of the Calvin S. Hamilton Pedway:

"The Calvin S. Hamilton Pedway, as the system is formally known, is a network of elevated walkways that was first presented in the 1970 Concept Los Angeles: The Concept for the Los Angeles General Plan. Hamilton was the city planning director at the time, having taken the position in 1964. The plan, adopted by the city in 1974, promoted dense commercial developments connected to one another by a rapid transit system. The plan was abandoned in 1981 when federal funding for the project was eliminated. Hamilton stepped down from his position in 1985 after a criminal investigation."
www.kcet.org/socal/departures/landofsunshine/block-by-blo…

"The pedways fall within the Downtown Center Business Improvement District, but the organization’s CEO says its strained resources can only cover maintenance crews on the pedways about once a week."
articles.latimes.com/2013/may/23/opinion/la-ed-pedways-20…

—-

Bunker Hill Towers (aka Bunker Hill Apartments aka Bunker Hill Residential Towers):
Built ca. 1966–68.
Architect: Robert Evans Alexander.

www.you-are-here.com/los_angeles/bunker_hill.html
www.essexapartmenthomes.com/apartment/bunker-hill-towers-…
www.yelp.com/biz/bunker-hill-towers-apartments-los-angeles
www.apartmentratings.com/rate/CA-Los-Angeles-Bunker-Hill-…
laforum.org/content/articles/downtown-again-by-peter-zellner

ZIMAS data:
Central City Community Plan Area, Freeway Adjacent Advisory Notice for Sensitive Uses, Greater Downtown Housing Incentive Area, Los Angeles State Enterprise Zone, General Plan Land Use= "Regional Center Commercial", Downtown Adaptive Reuse Incentive Area, Bunker Hill Redevelopment Project, w/in 500 feet of USC Hybrid High, Downtown Center Business Improvement District, Central City Revitalization Zone.

Assessment:
Assessed Land Val.: ,262,053
Assessed Improvement Val.: ,664,155
Last Owner Change: 04/01/98
Last Sale Amount: ,080,180

Year Built: 1968

"The 19-story, Robert Evans Alexander-designed Bunker Hill Towers opened in 1968. After the demolition of 7,310 pre-existing homes and forced relocation of their residents, Bunker Hill Towers became the residence for nearly all of Bunker Hill’s remaining residents. More than a decade would pass before the nearby residential Angelus Plaza and Promenade Towers opened. Long before the redeveloped loft crowd discovered downtown thousands lived in such residences, including Cathay Manor, Little Tokyo Towers, and hardest to ignore, on the streets."
www.kcet.org/socal/departures/landofsunshine/block-by-blo…

Robert Evans Alexander:
rmc.library.cornell.edu/EAD/htmldocs/RMM03087.html
digital.lib.washington.edu/architect/architects/180/
www.modernsandiego.com/RobertAlexander.html
archive.org/details/architectureplan01alex
archive.org/details/architectureplan02alex
articles.latimes.com/1992-12-02/news/mn-1120_1_r-e-alexander
joshtonies.com/?p=79
babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=mdp.39015027871386;seq=3;v…

—-

Walt Disney Concert Hall:
111 South Grand Avenue

Project search announced: 1987.
Initial design approved: 1988.
"Final" design approved: 1991.
Ground broken for the garage: 1992.
Hall actually built: 1999–2003.

Architect: Frank Gehry / Gehry Partners, LLP / Frank O. Gehry & Associates (“FOG/A”)
Executive Architect: Dan Dworsky / Dworsky Architects (at least initially, off the project by ’94)
Project Designers: Michael Maltzan (at least initially, left to start his own firm in ’95), Craig Webb (I believe).
Acoustic Design: Yasuhisa Toyota for Nagata Acoustics, with preliminary work by Minoru Nagata
Overall Project Management: Fred Stegeman for Stegeman/Kastner Inc. (initially until ca. ’95, I think)
Project Management w/in Gehry’s Firm: James Glymph (at least initially)
Structural Engineering: CBM Engineering (at least initially)
Garden Design: Melinda Taylor
Woodwork: Columbia Showcase (headed by Joe Patterson)

Software: Catia (by Dassault). (Primary responsibility for pushing for use of this software in Gehry’s office goes to partner James Glymph. During the later construction phase [2001–3], a 4D scheduling modeling system was also used that was developed by CIFE at Stanford and Walt Disney Imagineers, using Catia as its base, I think.)
Software consultants: C-Cubed (ca. 1991–94)

Client: A seven-member architectural search committee was set up by the Music Center in 1987 and chaired by Richard Koshalek, with Daniel Commins as acoustic advisor. In 1989, the twelve-member Walt Disney Concert Hall Committee was formally established and thereupon headed by Frederick M. Nicholas on a volunteer basis until about 1995. The land ("Parcel K") was owned by Los Angeles County and the County was represented in negotiations by attorney Richard S. Volpert, at least from 1989 to 1995. Sally Reed was CAO of the county for much of this period until 1995, but I’m not sure how directly involved she was with this project. The Philharmonic was initially represented by Ernest Fleischmann, managing director, with input from Esa-Pekka Salonen, the music director. (In 2001, Debra Borda became the new head at the Philharmonic, Esa-Pekka Salonen remained music director.) Lillian Disney represented herself and her family as the single largest private donor until her death in 1998, with Diane Disney Miller also on the committee and serving as its vice-chair at one point. Sharon Disney Lund was also involved in the negotiations until her death in 1993. They also acted through the family attorney, Ron Gother. From 1995 to 1997, Harry Hufford served as volunteer full-time CEO of the committee, with Suzanne Marx his vice-president for development, and a mandate to save the project and recapitalize it. At various points, other committee members included Stuart Ketchum, James A. Thomas, and Ronald J. Arnault. Mayor Riordan was also heavily involved. Riordan brought in Eli Broad to help finance the completion. In 1996, Andrea Van De Kamp became the new chair of the Music Center. (Sheldon G. Stanfill was president of the Music Center in the early 1990s.) In 1997, a new oversight committee was formed, with Eli Broad and Diane Disney Miller as chief guiding members. In 1998, William Siart, a member of the oversight committee, became chair of the main committee (the legal entity at the center of this confusion).

Financial auditing/oversight: Hines Interests (beginning in ’94, with Bruce Frey heading this work).

Owner: The County of Los Angeles, with the facility operated by a nonprofit under a Master Lease Agreement. (I believe this is an accurate summary of the situation, but I am not fully certain. The agreement is complicated and I believe it involves a sublease back to the County that obliges it to provide building and grounds maintenance, and then another subsublease to the organization that runs programming, which has subleases to the Philharmonic and the Music Center. So if I’ve made a muddle of that, I apologize.)

Major Donors: Lilian Disney, Eli Broad, The Disney Corporation, Ron Burkle, The Ralphs/Food4Less Foundation, Wells Fargo, Bank of America, The Times Mirror Foundation, Richard Riordan, Roy E. Disney (specifically for REDCAT), Pacific Bell Foundation, and Deloitte & Touche. (The County also provided significant funds to the parking garage.)

Seats 2,265.

Current home of the Los Angeles Philharmonic.

Features an organ with 72 stops, 109 ranks, and 6,125 pipes, co-designed by Frank Gehry and Manuel Rosales, with assistance from Kevin Gilchrist, and built by Caspar Glatter-Götz, with engineering assistance from Heinz Kremnitzer. Early in the process, a special committee was formed (with Cherry Rhodes, Robert Anderson, and Michael Barone serving)—just for finding the right organ designer, settling on Manuel Rosales in 1990. Michael Barone also served as a consultant during the final design process.
www.gg-organs.com/eng/projects/images/Aprcovfeat.pdf

"In 1982, the family company, Retlaw Enterprises, sold the rights to Walt Disney’s name and likeness to the Walt Disney Co. for million. That money was put aside for an unspecified charitable gift. . . . In 1987, Music Center then-Chairman F. Daniel Frost, who had been Walt Disney’s tax attorney, presented Lillian Disney with Los Angeles Times articles detailing the Music Center’s desire for a new concert hall. Disney readily agreed to donate her funds. At the time, Frost was the son-in-law of Music Center founder Dorothy Chandler and was a board member of Times Mirror, parent company of The Times. He has since divorced and has left the Times Mirror board."
articles.latimes.com/1995-02-27/news/mn-36686_1_disney-hall (’95)

The 1987/88 idea to use Parcel K for a new Philharmonic was not without significant opposition, including that out the outgoing CAO of the county, Jim Hankla, and architect Barton Myers, who both proposed that the new concert hall be built on the L.A. mall:
articles.latimes.com/1987-02-22/local/me-5387_1_music-cen…

"Lillian Disney made an initial gift of million in 1987 to build a performance venue as a gift to the people of Los Angeles and a tribute to Walt Disney’s devotion to the arts and to the city. . . . Upon completion in 2003, the project cost an estimated 4 million; the parking garage alone cost 0 million. The remainder of the total cost was paid by private donations, of which the Disney family’s contribution was estimated to .5 million with another million from The Walt Disney Company. By comparison, the three existing halls of the Music Center cost million in the 1960s (about 0 million in today’s dollars). . . . The walls and ceiling of the hall are finished with Douglas-fir while the floor is finished with oak. The Hall’s reverberation time is approximately 2.2 seconds unoccupied and 2.0 seconds occupied."
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Walt_Disney_Concert_Hall

It is worth pointing out that the final building hardly resembles the competition designs and models from the invited design competition in 1988 and substantially deviated from the 1991 designs and models in several key areas such as cladding and landscaping.

By the end, the design process apparently included over 30,000 drawings and models.
www.mediabistro.com/unbeige/disney-hall-turns-a-corner_b1653

From an initial field of ca. 80 entrants, then winnowed to a list of 25, the other three finalists in 1988 were Gottfried Böhm, Hans Hollein, and James Stirling.

From 1990 to 1991, the project faced a lawsuit brought by a group called A Local and Regional Monitor, represented by Sabrina Schiller, which alleged that there had not been a sufficient review of environmental and traffic impacts. Gary Justice, Pamela Schmidt, and Helen Parker represented the project and defeated the lawsuit and appeal.
www.gibsondunn.com/fstore/documents/pubs/AForbes_Eye_For_…

Another set of delays in 1990 came from a newer demand from the county that the site incorporate a hotel, in order to raise further revenue in the form of hotel taxes. Gemtel was to be the hotel developer and they were to bring in Ritz Carlton as operator. This was scrapped in 1991 when Ritz Carlton refused to agree to hire unionized labor and/or take on a living wage rule (the exact disagreement is somewhat unclear to me).

The 1991 models and other mock-ups premiered at the Fifth International Exhibition of Architecture at the Venice Biennale in 1991 to great acclaim, before being submitted for approval.

These mock-ups for the models were designed using Catia, "a 3D modeler made for the aerospace industry by Dassault, a French software company associated with IBM."
larrybarrow.com/assets/dissertation/Vol-2-back/A4-FOGA.pdf

"At one point, someone estimated that the project had over 90 consultants."
www.economist.com/node/86629 (’97)

During the first phase of the project, "a consortium of General Contracting firms, (Peck Jones, Turner Construction, and Obayashi) were selected to form the building entity, Concert Hall Builders." Yet I am not sure who the final constructing firms were.
larrybarrow.com/assets/dissertation/Vol-2-back/A4-FOGA.pdf

In 1994, the cost estimate skyrocketed by million and the project was put on hold pending auditing and financial review by Hines.
"According to committee budgets, some of the biggest increases in construction and material costs were in the steel framing, .6 million more than originally thought; in wood purchases and millwork, up million, partly because of a decision to add interior wood; and in drywalling and plaster, up .9 million. ‘The drywall designed for this hall has curves and movement that don’t have any comparison to anything else that’s been built in this city,’ Nicholas said. ‘The people who were bidding the drywall had never seen anything like it, hadn’t had any experience with it. So they put a lot of contingencies in it and they bid it very, very high. A bright spot is the purchasing, cutting and installation of the exterior Italian limestone–a process Gehry has closely supervised. Bids on that stonework are reported to be 5,000 below its original .6-million estimate.’"
articles.latimes.com/1994-08-27/news/mn-31646_1_disney-ha…

As described above, a major shake-up of operations occurred ca. 1995.
"Dworsky indicated, as a matter of tracking what happened to whom, it is quite simple, of all the major original participants (i.e. architects, engineers, builders, and project managers), no one survived except FOGA."
larrybarrow.com/assets/dissertation/Vol-2-back/A4-FOGA.pdf

The garden, initially a major feature of the design brief, has all but disappeared. It is supposedly partially on the roof? I have no idea. I never much noticed a garden during any of my visits to Disney Hall, although I didn’t mind the landscaping I did notice. In any case, Melinda Taylor was a fairly late addition to the project.

"She came in after a number of other designers, including Philadelphia landscape architect Laurie Olin and Nancy Goslee Powers, who did the Norton Simon Museum’s garden, had come and gone on the job."
articles.latimes.com/2002/mar/21/news/lv-disney21

“‘Wow! Did I do that? Holy shit! Did I do that?’ Sometimes you look at it that way,” Gehry says, taking in the flowing ribbons of steel at street level and then gazing up at the luffing “mainsails” at the center of the building—forms which seem to defy engineering, and which were conceived by Gehry as squiggly lines on a piece of paper more than 16 years ago. . . . Gehry, probably the most famous architect in the world right now, and arguably the most important and influential, is a modest figure in a profession known for its massive egos."
www.vanityfair.com/culture/features/2003/09/disney-concer… (2003)

"If Gehry lived in Idaho, we would see snowmobiles in his designs; he is an architect stuck in a feedback loop with his surroundings. As it is, he lives by the Pacific and owns a sailboat, and so it is seagoing vessels we see in his buildings: the boat-shaped main gallery of the Guggenheim Bilbao, the concert hall in Disney. ‘When I started Disney Hall,’ says Gehry, ‘I saw a show at the Toledo Museum in Ohio called In Praise of Ships in the Sea, and I got really excited about these shapes. I saw them in the wood ceiling I was already doing, and I brought them in.’ A metaphor took hold of Gehry: A concert was a journey, the hall would be a boat, the steel forms that shot into the air over L.A. its sails."
www.lamag.com/features/2003/10/12/how-disney-hall-redeeme… (quote on page 5)

For a student’s perspective on the use of nautical forms, see: couplarchideas.wordpress.com/2012/11/28/similarity-betwee…

books.google.com/books?id=WWl29hn0C9gC&lpg=PA72&v…
www.latimes.com/news/local/cl-ca-uroussoff19oct19,0,64916… (Ouroussoff, 2003)
www.nytimes.com/2003/10/23/arts/architecture-review-a-moo… (Muschamp, 2003)
www.slate.com/articles/arts/architecture/2003/10/epic_arc… (Hawthorne, 2003)
www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=1264860 (Stamberg, 2003)
www.thedailybeast.com/newsweek/2003/08/17/a-mighty-monume… (McGuigan, 2003)
www.latimes.com/entertainment/news/arts/cl-et-swed1jul01,… (Swed, 2003)
www.businessweek.com/stories/2003-10-05/frank-gehrys-high… (Palmieri, 2003)
www.nybooks.com/articles/archives/2003/oct/23/victory-at-… (Filler, 2003, paywall)
www.riprense.com/Silverstunt.htm (contrarian view, ca. 2003)
articles.latimes.com/2003/oct/25/entertainment/et-fisher25 (blurb round-up, 2003)
books.google.com/books?id=c2Kwa-EZR2IC&lpg=PA106&… (photo of opening night, 2003)
articles.latimes.com/1988-04-29/news/vw-2468_1_concert-hall (1988)
articles.latimes.com/1991-09-05/local/me-2333_1_walt-disn… (Isenberg, ’91)
articles.latimes.com/1991-09-15/realestate/re-3191_1_disn… (’91)
www.nytimes.com/1992/12/13/arts/architecture-view-gehry-s… (Muschamp, ’92)
articles.latimes.com/1992-11-22/magazine/tm-2024_1_disney… (’92)
articles.latimes.com/1994-11-03/news/mn-58297_1_concert-hall (1994)
books.google.com/books?id=rF0EAAAAMBAJ&pg=PT72&lp… (’96, scroll back a page or two for the start of the article titled "Why L.A. Hates Frank Gehry")
www.newyorker.com/archive/1997/07/07/1997_07_07_038_TNY_C… (’97)
www.laphil.com/philpedia/about-walt-disney-concert-hall
www.laphil.com
www.aia.org/cities/los-angeles/all-stories/disneyconcerth…
www.arcspace.com/features/gehry-partners-llp/walt-disney-…
www.laweekly.com/2003-10-30/music/organomics/ (on the organ, 2003)
www.latimes.com/entertainment/news/arts/la-et-disneyhall6… (Swed, 2008)
illumin.usc.edu/177/
interactive.wttw.com/tenbuildings/walt-disney-concert-hall
en.wikiarquitectura.com/index.php/Walt_Disney_Concert_Hall
www.nbm.org/exhibitions-collections/exhibitions/symphony-…
www.johnmartin.com/publications/Disney%20Concert%20Hall/D…
books.google.com/books?id=CooTi-asobIC&lpg=PA48&o…

Frank Gehry:
www.foga.com
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Frank_Gehry
www.gehrytechnologies.com
www.getty.edu/pacificstandardtime/explore-the-era/people/…
www.getty.edu/pacificstandardtime/explore-the-era/archive…
www.latimesmagazine.com/2008/10/frank-gehry-annie-gilbar….
www.kcet.org/arts/artbound/counties/los-angeles/frank-geh… (Frances Anderton)
larrybarrow.com/assets/dissertation/Vol-2-back/A4-FOGA.pdf
www.youtube.com/watch?v=zQ-Kf3sJfok (ca. 5 minutes)
www.youtube.com/watch?v=fRjnoNkaJUs (+1 hour long talk with Frank Gehry and others about him and the Los Angeles arts community)

Catia:
www.3ds.com/products/catia/
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CATIA
worldcadaccess.typepad.com/blog/2012/05/whats-the-price-o…
www.mcadcentral.com/catia-software-development/
www.caddigest.com/subjects/aec/select/022304_day_gehry.htm

4D modeling:
cife.stanford.edu/sites/default/files/WP064.pdf

James Glymph:
Was a partner at Gehry’s firm for 19 years (ca. 1989–2008) and was founding CEO of Gehry Technologies.

"In the 1980s, he worked with LMN Architects in downtown Seattle, heading the team that designed the San Diego Convention Center."
www.aiaseattle.org/KBD/about_glymph.htm

www.laiserin.com/laiserinlive/speakers/glymph.php
www.miamialum.org/s/916/interior-3-col.aspx?sid=916&g… (scroll down to "Edges Torn Open")
archrecord.construction.com/innovation/1_TechBriefs/0310G…
businessmodelalchemist.com/blog/2010/09/on-business-model… (scroll down for video)

Dan Dworksy:
I feel the need to point out that though Dan Dworsky is currently rather maligned within the Los Angeles architectural community, especially for his involvement in this project, he’s directly responsible for my favorite Bunker Hill buildings, the Angelus Plaza senior housing complex, as well as the very decent Figueroa Courtyard. The vision of a revived Bunker Hill with more than just tall glass boxes of office space owes a great deal to his efforts over the years.
digital.lib.washington.edu/architect/architects/273/
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dan_Dworsky
sma.sciarc.edu/subclip/takeyama-minourou-and-daniel-dwors…

Michael Maltzan:
A rising star in the California architectural scene, recently garnering praise and awards for his New Carver Apartments for the Skid Row Housing Trust. A building that provides transitional housing for the recently formerly homeless, it’s one I don’t like for a number of nit-picky reasons, but whose social conscience I credit. One of his most prominent commissions was for another performance hall—Mashouf Performing Arts Center for SF State. My favorite of his works is the Billy Wilder Theatre at the Hammer, which is a great size for films they screen and makes me think every time that I’ve snuck inside a fancy, sexy lipstick holder from the late 1980s: hot pink, sleek black, kiss kiss. I also think he did a wonderful job with MoMA QNS, the temporary (and more fun) home of MoMA while the main building was being revamped during the early 2000s.

"Michael Maltzan established his independent practice in Los Angeles in 1995. After graduating from the Rhode Island School of Design (1985) and Harvard’s Graduate School of Design (1988), he worked briefly in Boston for Schwartz/Silver Architects and then for Machado and Silvetti Associates. . . Then in 1988, Maltzan moved to California, where he joined the office of Frank Gehry. . . In Gehry’s office, Maltzan worked on the initial design stages of the acclaimed Walt Disney Concert Hall (1988–2004) for Los Angeles and was project designer for the tautly elegant Vontz Center for Molecular Studies (1993–1999) at the University of Cincinnati."
www.mmaltzan.com/essays/essay-alternate-ground/
www.mmaltzan.com
www.mmaltzan.com/profile/michael-maltzan/
www.arcspace.com/features/michael-maltzan-architecture/
www.arcspace.com/the-architects-studio/michael-maltzan-sk…
places.designobserver.com/feature/no-more-play/26888/

Yasuhisa Toyota:
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yasuhisa_Toyota
live.stanford.edu/bingconcerthall/files/ch-na.pdf
www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,543822,00.html
www.nagata.co.jp/e_index.html
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nagata_Acoustics

Craig Webb:
Senior partner (currently?) at Gehry Partners and the main designer assigned to Disney Hall after Michael Maltzan left the firm.

Before joining Gehry, Webb worked at Albert C. Martin & Associates and Barton Myers Associates.

"The 125-employee office is structured like a pyramid, with Gehry delegating creative work to two principal architects: Webb and Edwin Chan, who oversee design and direct project teams. . . . And while Bilbao was the defining project for Chan, Disney Hall belongs to Webb. ‘There’s a lot of him in there,’ says Gehry. . . . ‘They’re different personalities,’ says Gehry. ‘When Craig makes stuff, it’s more real. Edwin is more outgoing with people,’ he continues. ‘He seems to enjoy dealing with clients, the personal stuff. It’s different than how Craig does it. He is a little shy or reticent, not as gregarious. He gets a little fussy sometimes. Like everybody else, he gets insecure.’ . . . Gehry describes the younger architect as intuitive, with good communication and analytical skills and what he calls excellent ‘hand-eye coordination’ — the ability to see, explore and realize Gehry’s ideas. ‘He can play with me on that level.’"
articles.latimes.com/2003/sep/17/entertainment/et-roug17

Manuel Rosales:
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manuel_Rosales_(organ_builder)

Caspar Glatter-Götz:
www.gg-organs.com
www.gg-organs.com/eng/projects/disney.htm
www.gg-organs.com/eng/projects/images/Aprcovfeat.pdf
books.google.com/books?id=cgDJaeFFUPoC&lpg=PA225&…

Melinda Taylor:
Landscape designer, married to Craig Webb. This seems to have been her single largest project, although she has also worked on smaller projects and private gardens in Los Angeles.
www.melindataylor.com
articles.latimes.com/2002/mar/21/news/lv-disney21

Frederick M. Nicholas:
"Frederick M. Nicholas, an attorney licensed to practice law in the State of California since 1952, is a specialist in Real Estate Development and Leases. He is President of The Hapsmith Company, a Real Estate Development Firm with major interests in Northern and Southern California."
www.frederickmnicholas.com
www.frederickmnicholas.com/400_images/wdchpdfs/1993%20fal…
www.gibsondunn.com/fstore/documents/pubs/AForbes_Eye_For_…

Frederick Stegeman (d. 2009):
www.s-and-k.com/about/index.html

Harry Hufford:
"Hufford served as the chief administrator for Los Angeles County from 1974 to 1985 and worked as interim chief administrative officer in Ventura County from December 1999 to [2001]."
articles.latimes.com/2001/may/13/local/me-62999

"As CAO, Hufford was responsible for preparation and presentation of the County budget to the Board of Supervisors; administrative supervision of County departments; and management studies."
ceo.lacounty.gov/pdf/bio/hlh.pdf

Prior to being named acting CAO in 1974, Hufford had spent almost his entire career, with some interruptions, working in the staff of the CAO office, beginning initially in 1953.

He also served as an administrative officer at Gibson Dunn, and as a past president of the Music Center.

In 2001, he won the Earl Warren Public Service Award.
In 2003, there was a settlement in a sexual harassment suit against him.

articles.latimes.com/2003/apr/23/local/me-hufford23
articles.latimes.com/keyword/harry-hufford

—-

A discussion on the 1979 Bunker Hill CRA competition and Gehry’s participation in that. Most of the proposed projects mentioned did not get built:
www.youtube.com/watch?v=9rUrkUi2GKM

Image from page 399 of “The Pharmaceutical era” (1887)
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Identifier: pharmaceuticaler23newyuoft
Title: The Pharmaceutical era
Year: 1887 (1880s)
Authors:
Subjects: Drug Industry Drugs Drugs Pharmaceutical industry Pharmacy Pharmacy
Publisher: New York [etc.] D. O. Haynes & Co
Contributing Library: Gerstein – University of Toronto
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t will promote good business for you and for us. J, C. AYER CO. .Ayers Hair Vigor, S1.00 size only ; Ayers Cherry Pectoral, three sizes, 25c., 50c., .00;— 25c. size is a very rapid seller; Ayers Pills, 25c., more for the money now than ever;Ayers Sarsaparilla, .00, in new cartons with sample box of Pills free ; Ayers Ague Cure,50c. now, new and improved ; Ayers Cherry Pectoral Plasters, 25c., they take the ache. A Genuine Comer■ ■Ayers Comatonc. THE PHARMACEUTICAL ERA. [April s, 1900^ I Hmiyadi J^nos { BEST NATURAL APERIENT WATER, j The Prototype of all Bitter Waters.—The Lancet, London, 1896. I Hunyadi Janes is the only aperient water imported to this country from the- iHunyadi Springs of Hungary. No druggist should be without it, it being a household article well advertisedand always in demand. FOR PRICES AND TERMS APPLY TO ANDREAS SAXLEHNER, 130 Fulton street, NEW YORK. BRANCH OF THE FIRM OF ANDREAS SAXLEHNER, Budapest, Hungary SOLE PROPRIETOR OF THE HUNYADI SPRINGS. ^n

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